Memoranda for Submission to the Chief Ministers of the Two Telugu States.


Dr Ambedkar : India’s Constitution and After


Dr Ambedkar : India’s Constitution and After

Dr T.H.Chowdary*



Dr Ambedkar continues to be a compelling presence in the political arena of Bharat.  His epic exertions against untouchability  and for human rights are the equals of Nelson Mandela of South Africa  and  Martin Luther King Jr of  the USA. His work in the  Constituent Assembly ( 1946-1949), the provisional Parliament ( Aug 1947 to March 1952) and in the Rajya Sabha ( 1952-1956) has been monumental/  His dream for a socialist, democratic, welfare Bharat, especially  uplifting the  Dalits could not  be built into part-III ( enforceable fundamental rights) of the Constitution.  As Chairman of the Drafting Committee  piloting the  passage of the  final draft of the  Constitution he had to work within the  bounds set by the  Congress Party, especially its  towering  leaders, Nehru, Patel and   Dr. Rajendra Prasad.


ii. That independent India  needed a Constitution framed by Indians was realized during our freedom movement.  Motilal Nehru drew up one in 1928.  K.M.Munshi wrote one in greater detail at Gandhiji’s behest in 1934.


iii. Clement Atlee,  Prime Minster of  war  - exhausted and debilitated Greta Britain  in march 1946 decided  and made the announcement to quit India  by not later than August 1948 .  He sent the Cabinet Mission ( March-May) 1946  to work out modalities of transferring power to Indians.  After extensive consultations with leaders  all shades of opinions, The Cabinet Mission “sold” the scheme for a nominally united  three-tier federal India with British India’s provinces as “Units”,


composing three Groups and the  Groups forming Federal India  with jurisdiction only over three subjects: defense, foreign affairs and  communications. Two Groups (N.W -3 and N.E- 2) would be Muslim majority (Pakistans) and one in the  middle ( 6 provinces) Hindu majority.  The 565 Indian Princes’ States could  join either the  Hindu Group or the  Muslim Groups or be independent !  To implement this Cabinet Mission  Plan, which was accepted by Congress and Muslim League, the  Constituent Assembly was  constituted  and convoked in 1946 by the  Vice-Roy and Governor General, Lord Wavell.

iv. Sir B N Rau, ICS was assigned as adviser to the  Constituent Assembly. He studied the  Constitutions of more than a score of countries, especially of the USA, Australia, Ireland, South Africa and Canada. He drew up a draft Constitution for independent India.  That  included 250 articles of the  Government of India  Act 1935  which formed part of the final 395 Articles ( 26 Nov 1949)  Constitution  of  India.

v. The Constitution of  independent India  is thus the  product  of  labours of several  persons  and from several sources.  Dr. Ambedkar as Chairman of  the  Drafting Committee had made a “whole” of several “parts”,  all into a  magnificent text, with provision for  amendments  ( Art-368) to reflect the  needs  of a  dynamically changing aspirations of multi-splendoured Bharatiyas.  The only permanent thing in  the world is change.  Whether  that change is for better or worse  depends upon the dominant intellectual class.  

vi.  Dr Ambedkar wrote,  “ in every country, the intellectual class is the most influential class, if not the governing class.  The intellectual  class is a class which can foresee, it is the  class which can  advice and  give lead.  In no country that the mass  of the people  live the life of intelligent thought an action. It is largely imitative and follows the intellectual class.  There is no exaggeration in saying that the entire  destiny of a country  depends  up on its intellectual class. If the intellectual class   is honest, independent and  disinterested it can be trusted to take the initiative and give a proper lead when a crisis arises. It is true  that intellect by itself is no virtue.  It is only a means and the  use of means  depends upon the  ends which an intellectual  person  pursues . An intellectual man can be a good man but he can easily be a rogue . Similarly an intellectual class may be  a band of high- souled  persons ready to  help, ready to emancipate erring humanity or it may easily be a  gang of crocks or a body of advocates   of a narrow-clique from which it draws its support.” ( Dr Baba Sahib Ambedkar  : Writings and Speeches,  Vol. I,  page 71) 

vii. Do we now  have such intellectual class which truly and honestly  cherishes Bharat’s  millennial civilization and culture  and continuously strives to faithfully  nourish  Bharateeyata and Bharata Rashtra , inspiring  and  instructing Bharateeyas to build a prosperous  egalitarian, powerful, intellectual and ethical  Bharat  to be a Jagadguru to the troubled humanity.

viii.  In the  next article/ paper I am addressing Dr Ambedkar’s exit from Hinduism and  conversion to Buddhism of his  conception which is being described now as Navayana Buddhism ( the third variant, the other two being Mahayana and  Hinayana) by some and as Ambedkarism by some others.

viii.  Finally as myself I hold Dr Ambedkar as a great intellectual, scholar, nationalist and reformer.


1. The World’s  Longest Constitution:

The drafting and  final adoption of the Constitution for India  was a huge exercise  participated in by a galaxy of legal and  political luminaries   - K.M.Munshi, Dr B.R. Ambedkar, N. Gopalaswami Iyangar, Alladi Krishnaswami Iyer; Jawaharlal Nehru, Sardar Patel, Dr. Rajendra Prasad, among others.  The Constituent Assembly ( Consembly for short) convoked on Nov 1946 before India’s partition and independence on 15-08-1947 in contested implementation of  Britain’s Cabinet Mission Plan ( March- May 1946) for a three tiered ( Provinces, Groups of  Provinces and  a Center) free but feeble India. Nehru’s announcement of 10-07-1946 that “Congress would enter the   Consembly completely unfettered by agreements of Cabinet Mission Plan of 16 May 1946 and free to meet all situations as they arise” was construed by the   Muslim League as  Congress’s rejection of the Cabinet Plan and  so, it also rejected the Plan; insisted on partition of India  to create Islamic state of  Pakistan, launched Direct Action   of communal riots) on 16 Aug 1946 and boycotted the  Consembly.

2. Dr Ambedkar’ Entry into Consembly:

In 1946   following the  Cabinet  Mission (March, 1946 to June 1946) persons were elected  to the  Constituent Assembly,  the electorate was the MLAs in the Provinces.  Dr Ambedkar could not  get elected   from any of the  Congress- ruled    provinces.  Sri Jogendranath Mondal,  a  very popular  Scheduled Caste leader of East Bengal  resigned his membership  of the  Consembly and made way for Dr Ambedkar.  When India was partitioned,  East Bengal became East Pakistan . Dr Ambedkar ceased to be a member of the Consembly.  At Gandhiji’s suggestion Sardar Patel and Rajendra Prasad,   much against Nehru’s opposition, wrote on 1st  July 1947  to  Premier Sri B G Kher of Bombay  province to send  Dr Ambedkar  before 14 July to the  Constituent Assembly  in the vacancy caused by  resignation of Sri M R Jayakar.

3. Consembly without Muslim League Members:

3. The Consembly continued its deliberations unmindful of  Muslim League’s boycott. Dr Ambedkar was taken into the  Drafting Committee ( one of  several  committees) on 29 Aug 1947 which elected him as its Chairman on 30 Aug 1947.    The  Constitution as it was finally adopted on 26 Nov 1949 was the work of  several Committees and  sub-committees. Dr Ambedkar carried out  the  laborious and intellectual task of  seeing that the  reports of   various committees were  mutually consistent.  The Draft Constitution was introduced in the Consembly for discussion by Dr Ambedkar on  4th Nov 1948. Dr. Ambedkar piloted the  final  draft through the  three readings after which it was adopted on 26 Nov 1949. 7635 amendments were proposed by different Members.  Of them, 2473 were actually moved, and debated; a few were accepted with some  modifications. Chairman  of the Drafting Committee Dr Ambedkar put the  395 Articles, (250 of which were from the Government of India Act 1935)  of the world’s  longest Constitution as a consistent whole.  Eloquent tributes were paid to him. 

4. Dr. Ambedkar becomes India’s Statesman:

4.1 When elected to the  Constituent Assembly Dr Ambedkar’s object was to safe -guard the interests of the  SCs.  But  when he was  made a member of the Drafting Committee and the  Drafting Committee elected him as its  Chairman, 30nSept 1947  there began a shift in his position from a radical defender and promoter  of the interests of  Schedule Castes; he had to think about the whole of India  and  take note of  the views  of the overwhelming number of members of the Consembly and so,  he put all his heart and soul   in making  as best  a constitution  as  the Congress and other members desired.   As days passed  there was shift in the thinking about his role  in constitution- making and his opinion about the  Constitution .

4.2 While taking the  final draft of Constitution through the three readings, he defended  every clause as it was in the draft presented for adoption.  He  rebutted  every  criticism about  every article   from all quarters.  People are therefore going to the extent of saying that it is Dr Ambedkar’s Constitution. 

5  Ambedkar Constitution ?

 Many are, of late, calling our Constitution which  by now, December 2022 has been  amended 103 times, as “Ambedkar Constitution”.   The irony is that Dr. Ambedkar repudiated and denounced it strongly and  eloquently (Page -52,  “Makers of Constitution” ).  Dr Ambedkar joined the Nehru cabinet as Law Minister on 15 Aug 1947 and  resigned from the Nehru cabinet in Sept/ Oct 1951, levelling grave  charges against Nehru.  In the  debate on Andhra State Bill on 2nd Sept 1953 he even said he was merely a hack doing what  was required of him to produce the Constitution  as it was adopted  on 26 -11-1949.  He even said, he would  burn it!  Extracts from the speeches of   Dr. Ambedkar , Chairman of the  Drafting  Committee and Dr Rajendra Prasad, President of the  Consembly  on 26 Nov 1949  at the adoption of the  final version of the  Constitution  are given in this paper as Annex – I & II.  It is obvious that   not many Members of  Parliament  have imbibed the real spirit of our constitution or the ideals  that inspired  Mahatma Gandhi , Dr Ambedkar, Sardar Patel  and even Jawaharlal Nehru. The caliber and character of the MPs we elected and the  parties which put them  up are indeed  unbecoming  of the lofty objectives of our Constitution and of India to be rid of casteism,  linguism, communalism  , illiteracy  and poverty.

6. Dr Ambedkar entered the Consembly to protect SC interests:  

Dr Ambedkar  according to his own statement entered the  Consembly  in  1946 as a Shedule Caste Federation (SCF) candidate from Bengal to  safe -guard the interests of  the Shedule Castes  has been  included in the Drafting Committee ; in Aug 29, 1947; it elected him   to the   Chairmanship  of the Drafting Committee on 30 Aug 1947 .   In that position  he had to conduct himself as a statesman, not only  to protect the  interests of SCs, but of the country and its people as a  whole.  He rose to the occasion  and  laboured hard  for all the duration of the  Consembly till the Constitution was adopted  on Nov 26,  1949,  accepting some amendments, rejecting others and bringing about  harmony between  all the articles  of the Constitution.


7. Ambedkar’s Memorandum:

7.1 In March 1947  ( much before he was made a Member  and Chairman of the Drafting Committee) Dr Ambedkar circulated  among the Consembly Members a printed memorandum with the  title “States and Minorities” wherein he advocated among others,  separate electorate  and reservation for SCs. Dr Ambedkar  held  that unless the SCs were economically and socially uplifted rapidly by affirmative action,  the objective of   social  equality of all  would not be  realized. Since  he could not get   his drastic propositions  in this memorandum like,  natioanlisation of  agricultural  land, all industries only in the government sector  and  that government should provide employment for all and look after their  welfare…. ….in addition to  specific measures for economic upliftment of SCs , he incorporated  all these objectives into   Part-IV;  that is  Directive Principles of State Policy. They can be implemented only if successive  governments make legislation  to effectualise them as for eg:  government’s duty  to provide compulsory  free  education for all children from ages  6 to 14 (Article-  40 ) .  Panchayati Raj  (Article - 40)  which were legislated   only  later.

7.2  Dr K.M. Munshi Summarized Ambedkar’s Memorandum (pre-1947) as :

a . All basic industries were to be owned by the State , to be run by it or by public corporations

b. Subsisting    rights in basic and  key industries and insurance were to be acquired by the  State after payment of compensation  in the form of  debentures .

c. Agriculture was to be a State industry; land was to be acquired by the State, was to be divided into collective farms   of standard size to be cultivated collectively.  The State was to finance the cultivation; a part of the   produce was to be taken by the  State as land revenue; another was to be paid  to  the debenture holders ;a third to be invested in capital goods

d. The representatives  of the   minorities  in the  Cabinet were  to be elected by  members of each community  in the   legislatures by single  transferable vote; the representatives of the majority community  were to be  elected by the whole house i.e including  the minorities among whom were included as a separate group)  by single transferable vote.

e. The SCs were to have the right  to representation based on population  in certain cases and in others, with weightage  (as for Muslims during British rule)

f. At least one representative of the Schedule Caste  should  be on every Public  Service Commission and every committee constituted for making appointments ( P 161 & 162) . ( The Constitution of India , Role of  K M Munshi by  Sesh Rao Chavan)

7.3 Munshi ji observed, with the  scheme  ( in Dr Ambedkar’s Memo) was accepted ,  “ a State would be  a totalitarian  apparatus run for the benefit of Shedule Castes in which the majority would be politically reduced to the status of second class  citizens”.  (P 161)

7.4 In Dr Ambedkar’s memorandum, “States and Minorities  the provision of Fundamental Rights was very different from the other drafts that were  considered and adopted. His  strictly time- bound 10- year program of socialistic reconstruction of society and  economic development would , he thought, make reservations  for SCs/ STs unnecessary after  the initial period  ( of 10 years). ( Page-178,  “Seshrao the Makers of Indian  Constitution”).

8.  Dr Ambedkar on Governors:

8.1 Dr Ambedkar did not like the idea of making governors as simple rubber stamp. In fact, some parties like the  statement parties”, that is  communists are agitating for the abolition of the governors post  alleging that they are  agents of the  ruling party at the  Center and so not approving the names of persons  suggested for nomination to the Legislative Councils in some States ,   and not giving ascent to bills passed  by the legislature and so on. 

8.2  While speaking  in Parliament on 2 Sept 1953 on Andhra State Bill ( 1953)  he said this, “…we have inherited on account of our hatred to the British certain   ideas about democracy which it seems to me  are not universally accepted.  We inherited the idea that the governor must have no power at all, that he must only be a rubber stamp. If a minister however scoundrel, he may be, however corrupt,  he may be if puts up a proposal before the governor he has to ditto it . That is the kind of conception about  democracy which we have developed in this country”.   An MP Sri M S Ranawat interjected:  “ But you defended it”. Then Dr Ambedkar responded ,  “ we, lawyers defend  many things ….…we happened to develop a theory of democracy  simply because of our opposition to the  British  ……”  (P. 173, The Makers of India’s Constitution : Myth and  Reality. Seshrao  Chavan: Bhavan’s publication)  


9. Dr Ambedkar against Panchayati Raj:


 Dr Ambedkar  was against Panchayats and Panchayati Raj  so dear to Gandhiji  and his bhaktas in the Congress. Here is what Dr Ambedkar said about village Panchayats.


9.1  On 6th October 1932, in the  Bombay Legislative Assembly  Dr. Ambedkar declaimed that “India has not succeeded in producing nationalism…the  chief reason is the existence of the  village (Panchayat) system…..under the ancient village Panchayat India instead of being a country of united people became a loose conglomeration….with no common tie, except common allegiance to a king”. (LIV,  P 54 Seshrao the Makers of Indian  Constitution )


9.2  Because of his severe dislike of Panchayats and Panchayati Raj. Dr Ambedkar,  on the insistence of the  Gandhiite MPs of the Congress  put the Panchayat Raj  in the  Directive Principles ( Art-40).  It was during  Rajiv Gandhi’s  Prime Ministership  an act was passed   for the village Panchayats to be statutorily  constituted, elections-held  and  certain powers and funds given to them. It is common knowledge that the Panchayats now are no different from the  legislatures  that is,  they have become  party- controlled   and every ill  that afflicts  the legislators and the elections,  apply  to the Panchayat system also.


9.3  Gandhi bhaktas in the Consembly wanted that Panchayati Raj and village self-government  should find prominent place in the Constitution. Dr Ambedkar  opposed this very vehemently. Dealing with the suggestions for village governments, Ambedkar said: “ the village was  a sink of localism , a den of ignorance, narrow-mindedness and communalism …..the village republics had been the  ruination of India. …he was glad that the   draft Constitution had  discarded the village and adopted  the individual as its unit.” 

9.4  He was however prevailed upon to include it in the  Directive Principles ( Article - 40 ). It was only during Rajiv Gandhiji’s Prime Ministership  (1984-’89) that this Directive Principle about Panchayati Raj was  given  its statutory existence. We now have 3,50,000 Panchayats  wherein reservations are made for  SCs, women and even BCs.

10.  Dr. Ambedkar  & Article 370: When Shaikh Abdullah met Dr B R Ambedkar, he gave him a patient hearing. After Abdullah had finished, Ambedkar told him: "You want India to defend Kashmir, feed its people, undertake its all round development and give Kashmiris equal rights all over the country; but you do not want the rest of India and Indians equal rights in Kashmir. I am the Law Minister of India. I cannot betray my country." With these words, he refused to draft the article Abdullah desired. Nehru never dared to talk to Ambedkar on this subject. This showed that Ambedkar was a better nationalist than Nehru and his approach in regard to Kashmir was more realistic.(Source: Nationalist Extraordinary, By Balraj Madhok)

11. Dr Ambedkar on  Re-writing the Constitution:  In his  long speech introducing the final draft of the  Constitution   for adoption Dr Ambedkar  pointedly referred to the Communist Party which was condemning  the Constitution as presented by him .  He said, “ the condemnation of the   Constitution largely comes from two quarters , the communist party and the socialist party. Why do they condemn the Constitution?   Is it because it is really  a bad Constitution? I venture to say “no”.  The communist party wants  a Constitution based upon the principle of the  Dictatorship of the Proletariat. They condemn the Constitution  because it is based upon parliamentary democracy…..” .   He further said, “what I do say is that  the principles embodied  in the Constitution are the views of the  present generation , or  , if you think this to be over statement ,  I say the are the views  of the Constituent Assembly. …”  He further said, “Jefferson the great American statesmen who played so great  a part in the making of  the American Constitution, has expressed some very weighty views which makers of the Constitution can never afford to  ignore.   In one place, he has said : “ we may consider each generation as a distinct nation , with a right , by the  will of the majority ,  to bind themselves , but none to bind  the successive generation more than the inhabitants  of another  country”…… “The earth belongs not to the dead    but to the living…” ( Pages 97 & 98 : The Makers of Indian Constitution: Myth and Reality  by Seshrao Chawan, published by Bharatiya Vidya Bhavan  with foreword from Js H R Khanna and  Preface by Dr L M Sanghvi both  distinguished  and eminent jurists  )   .

On another occasion Dr Ambedkar observed in the  Constituent  Assembly :  “The workability of a constitution  is not a matter of  theory.  It is a matter of  sentiment.  A constitution like clothes must suit as well as  please . If the Constitution does not please, then however perfect it may be  it will not work .  To have a constitution which runs  counter  to the strong sentiments of  a determined section (of people) is to court disaster if not to invite rebellion”.  (Source:  Page 365 ; Pakistan or the Partition of India  of B R Ambedkar)


12. Nationalist Muslims  in the Consembly :

The “nationalist” Muslims  in the  Congress Party acted under the guidance of Maulana Abul Kalam Azad, urged  reservations  with weightage for Muslims, as before Independence . At a  later stage,  two leading “nationalist  Muslims, Abdul Quaiyum Ansari and  Maulana  Hafiz -ur-Rahman wanted  a provision inserted   in the  Constitution to the effect that  Muslim  Qazis  should be appointed  to administer shariat  laws and a Muslim minister placed  in-charge of waqfs.   (P. 160 , The Constitution of India, Role of Dr K M Munshi, Bhavans book by Sesh Rao Chavan)

 13.  Ambedkar disowns the Constitution  ascribed to him: 

13.1 After he resigned from the  cabinet ( Sept 27/ Oct 10,  1947)  because of differences with  Jawaharlal Nehru  in Oct 1951, his views  about the Congress party as well as the Constitution  changed radically.  He went to the  extent of saying  that “he was  a hack and he did what he was asked to do much against his will and also  that  he will be the first person to burn the Constitution. He does not   want it . It does not suit anybody” he said.

13.2 While speaking  in the Parliament on 2 Sept 1953 on Andhra State Bill of 1953 Dr Ambedkar said: “ people always keep on saying to me , oh! You are the maker of the Constitution.  His answer is  I was a hack. What I was asked to do , I did much against  my will”.

Sri P .Sundaraiah ( Communist leader in Rajya Sabha) asked, “ why did you serve your masters  then like that? ……

13.3 In the Same speech Dr Ambedkar further  said, “ Sir,  my friends tell me that I have made the constitution.  But I am  quite prepared to say that “I shall be the first person to burn it out.  I do not want it. It does not  suit anybody. ……”

13.4 On another  occasion while speaking on the  amendment to Article -31, on 19 March 1955 Dr. Anup Singh  (Punjab), MP  interrupted Dr Ambedkar  and said, “  last time  when you spoke you said, that you burn the constitution . Dr Ambedkar replied : “  do you want a reply to that ?  I would give  it to you right  now “. …… In a hurry I did not explain the  reason ….. Now I  shall give the  reason. The  reason is this: “We built  a temple for a God to  come in and reside  , but before the God could  be installed ,  if the devil has taken the possession  of it, what else could we do except destroy the  temple” .


14. Dr Ambedkar’s happiness at “separation of India from Pakistan”:

14.1  Dr Ambedkar was happy at the partition of India. He expressed his happiness in the following words: “  I was glad that India  was separated from Pakistan. I was the philosopher so to say,  of Pakistan  . I  advocated Pakistan  because I felt that it was only by partition that Hindus  would not  only be independent but free.  If India and  Pakistan had remained united in one state, Hindus would be not  independent  would have been in the mercy of Muslims.  A merely independent  India   would not have been a free India  from the point of view of the  Hindus. It would have been a government  of one country  by two nations  and of these two,  the Muslims without question would have been  ruling race  notwithstanding Hindu Mahasabha  and   Jana Sangh. When  partition took place  I felt that  God  was willing to  lift his curse and let India be  one great and  prosperous nation.  But I fear that the curse may fall again. For I  find that those who are advocating linguistic states have at heart an idea of making the regional language as their  official  language.  This will be the death knell   to the idea of united India.   With regional language  as official language the ideal to make India  one united country and to make Indians , “Indians First Indians Last”,  will vanish.   ( Dr Baba Saheb Ambedkar’s  Writings and  Speeches, Vol- 1,  Page- 146)

15. Dr Ambedkar on Nehru’s blunders:

15.1 In the last week of Oct 1951, in a meeting in Jalandhar he declared that “ there was no place for the SCs in the heart of  the Congress party”. And  added that “ Nehru suffered from Muslim mania” (P-458 Dhananjay Keer)

15.2 While campaigning in the bye-election to a  SC reserved seat in  the  Lok Sabha  in April 1954 Dr Ambedkar launched a frontal bitter attack on Nehru (this was in addition  to the  five failures accusation he leveled against  Nehru in Oct 1951 when he resigned from the  cabinet). He said Nehru’s foreign  policy had made India a friendless country.  Nehru  has  bungled  the Kashmir  issue and had sheltered men  who were dishonest  and that India was encircled by a kind of  United States of  Islam  on one side; on the other side, there were Russia and China in a combination for the conquest of Asia to bring communism”. ( P-453 Dhananjay Keer: Dr Ambedkar : Life and Mission )

15.3 No wonder that Sonia  -directed Manmohan Singh government  (2004-14) launched and implemented “ Muslim First” ( not SC or ST)  special development programs in Sachar Committee identified  over 80  significantly Muslim populous districts of Bharat.  Nehru’s Congress  has been  in alliance with the Indian Union Muslim League in Kerala  for the last few decades.

16. Dr Ambedkar: Hyderabad as Second Capital of India :

“India  had always two capitals.  During the Mughals they were Delhi  and Srinagar, Delhi in winter and  Srinagar in summer.  The British too had two capitals -    Calcutta  and Shimla and  later, Delhi   and   Shimla .  Neither the Mughals nor the British   cared for the people. We now have popular government. The convenience of the  people  is an  important  factor.  Delhi is  most inconvenient to the people of  South India.  …….  Delhi is a vulnerable place . It is  within bombing distances  of the neighboring countries…… can not be assumed that India  will not  have to face war sometimes or the other   and if the  war  comes in force  government of India  will have to  leave Delhi   and find another  place for the location……….. I find Hyderabad be  an ideal place. Hyderabad , Secunderabad and Bollarum should be constituted into a Chief Commissioners Province  ( now Union Territory) and made a second capital of  India.  Hyderabad fulfills all the requirements of a capital for India. It is  equal distance to all states. ….. From the defense point of view it would  give safety to the  Central government …  would give satisfaction to the South Indian people that their  government is sometimes with them. Delhi may be capital during winter month and Hyderabad during rest of the  year. Hyderabad  has all the amenities which Delhi has and  it is a far better city than Delhi.  It has  all the  grandeur which Delhi has  .  Buildings  are growing up and they are really beautiful ……far superior to those in Delhi.   It would be  to the satisfaction of the whole   of South India, to Maharashtra and to the Andhras. ( xlvii – viii The Makers of Indian Constitution – Myth and  Reality by Sesh Rao  Chavan, publication of  Bharatiya Vidya Bhavan)

17 . Dr Ambedkar’s failure “ to be a Member of the  Lok Sabha:

17.1 He was elected to the Rajya Sabha from  Bombay state in 1952.  Dr Ambedkar contested for a seat in the Lok Sabha from Bombay in the   General Elections in  Jan 1952 as a candidate from Shedule Caste Federation. Sri SA Dange of the communist party of India     canvassed against him  advising  the electorate not to vote for Ambedkar but cast their votes  to his opponent. Ambedkar was defeated by Sri Rajbhoj , the Congress’  SC candidate.  In April 1954 while campaigning in Bhandara as a candidate in the bye-election to the  Lok Sabha he accused Nehru of “sheltering men who were dishonest” ( P 453 , Dhananjay Keer). In this second  attempt to get elected to the Lok Sabha, Dr Ambedkar was defeated  by the combined efforts of Communists and  Congress.  He continued to be a member of Rajya Sabha till his  death, 6 Dec 1956 . 

17.2 Dr Ambedkar  was  ever opposed to Communists in India  as well as in the  Soviet Union .  In the late 1930s, Dr Ambedkar stated that he would not join  any labour movement led by communists.  He declared , “ that he was a confirmed  enemy of the communists who exploited the labourers for political ends”. (p 296 Dhanajay Keer) Avoiding communists and Trade Unions controlled by them, Dr Ambedkar founded the   Independent  Labour Party in Aug 1936.  It tried to wean  away  textile  labourers of Bombay from the communist controlled  Girni Kamgar Union. In the 1937 General elections, the ILP won 15 of  the  17 seats reserved for SCs in Bombay Province. 

17.3 Dr Ambedkar was member of Consembly from Dec 1946 and Consembly cum Parliament  of independent  India from 15 Aug 1947 to 19 March 52 when he became the Rajya Sabha member when it was constituted.  Since then till his  death  on 6 Dec  1956 he remained a member of the Rajya Sabha.

18. Dr Ambedkar for Separate Electorate for Muslims ! :

It will shock many people to know that Dr Ambedkar, after quitting the Nehru cabinet in Sept / Oct 1951, while campaigning in the  1952 General Elections to the  Lok Sabha made a speech before the Muslims of  Bom ay impressing on their  minds the  importance of separate electorates. This  speech was lamented by many of his sympathizers who said that it was unbecoming of the   Father of the  Constitution ( page 330, Dhananjaya Keer Dr Ambedkar: Life and  Mission, Popular Prakashan  - 1995 Reprint)

19. The Climax – “ Buddhism” :

 Jawaharlal  Nehru  did not give importance to Dr Ambedkar  and did not recognize his merits and confined him to the  Law Ministry.  Nehru did not include him in any Cabinet Committee during the  entire period  15 Aug 1947 to 10Oct 1951 during which he was  Minister for Law !  He felt he had no opportunity to show his  talents as an economist and  a determined  social reformer.  Nehru could not  get  the Parliament  to enact  the Hindu Code Bill  as drafted by Dr Ambedkar in the period Aug 1947-’52.  And  in the next  Parliament in  1952 -57 when the  Hindu Code Bill was being presented in parts, Nehru  did not   allow   Dr Ambedkar’s  attempt to reform, the Muslim Personal Law especially in regard to marriage,  inheritance  adoption etc. This was another reason why  Dr Ambedkar  bitterly  criticized  Nehru later. The climax  was Dr Ambedkar’s call to the   SCs  to leave  the Hindu fold and   convert   not to  Islam or  Christianity  but only to an indigenous dharma,  namely, Buddhism (of his enunciation later).

20. Dr Ambedkar’s “Dalit Bandhu” Scheme:

20.1 One of the persisting passions of Dr B.R. Ambedkar  was upliftment of Dalits termed Schedule Castes in the  Constitution  and in other legislation.  On Sept 6, 1954  while speaking in the Rajya Sabha on the report of the Commission for  Schedule Castes and Scheduled Tribes,  pleaded for re- imposition  of  salt tax and  creation of  Gandhi Trust Fund for the  uplift of the  untouchables with the  revenue  from the  re-imposed salt tax. He said that the fund could be utilised for re-settling the  SCs  on waste lands . The abolition of salt tax was done  in memory of Mr Gandhi  (  two tall leaders Md Ali Jinnah and Dr Ambedkar never used the honourific “Mahatma” while referring to Gandhiji. Both always referred to him as “Mr.Gandhi” only ). He pleaded for imposing a ceiling on land  holdings, acquire the excess land above the  ceiling and distribute it among the  S.Cs. The Gandhi Trust Fund could be used to buy farm lands for distribution to SCs, he said. (P. 202, Ambedkar : and Economist Extraordinaire  : by Narendra Jadhav: 2015 Konark Publishers)

20.2 Sri   K Chandrasekhara Rao’s ( Chief Minister of Telangana) Dalit Bandhu is intended to help  the Dalits  quit poverty . There was legislation imposing ceiling on agricultural land holding   as well as  urban land . The excess over the ceiling could have been procured by government  and allotted to Dalits . It is not too late. If the  governments are sincere to lift up the Dalits  economically and therefore socially, they should  create  property for them.   What better  property can they have  than  agricultural  and urban land?

20.3 Most  agricultural land owned  by  non-SC, non-ST  persons  is cultivated by landless labourers on lease (kaulu). The input subsidy that government is giving  is to the title-  holder that is, the absentee landlord and not to  the tenant   farmer . This must be corrected.

20.4 Politicians  of all hues  chant the name of Dr Ambedkar in and out of  season. The real and  sincere tribute to him should be by  helping the Dalits to have property .  The agricultural land of the  absentee landlords and the  excess over the  celling in urban lands must be acquired  by government,  paid for by  interest- bearing bonds and  allotted to  Dalits, thus  making them property owners of  land; then they can quit poverty. This will be the real Dalit Bandhu  program which must be taken up in earnestness by all sincere  politicians.

21.  Dr Ambedkar on Gandhiji:

After the assassination of  Mahatma  Gandhi,  Dr Ambedkar  wrote a  letter dated 8 Feb 1948  to Sharada alias Lakshmi Kabir who later became his  wife ( first wife  Ramabai died in 27 May 1935)  in which he said, “ …I  owe nothing to  Mr. Gandhi and he has not contributed to my spiritual,   moral and social make up. "Mr. Gandhi had become a positive danger to his country.  He had choked all the thoughts.  He was holding together the Congress which is a combination of all the bad and self-seeking elements in society who agreed on no social or moral principle governing the life of society except the one of praising and  flattering Mr Gandhi.  Such a body is unfit to govern the country".  And the Bible says that something good comes  out of evil, so also I think that good will come out of the  death of Mr. Gandhi.  He will release  people from bondage to superman, It will make them think for themselves and it will compel them to stand on their own merits.  And to that, he added: “My real enemy has gone, thank goodness, the eclipse is over” (Source: A Reporter At Large ( page 238/239) by M V Kamat)

22. Dr Ambedkar and Swatantra Veer Savarkar:

22.1 Swatantra Veer Savarkar is  denounced by Communists, secularists and Muslims  as  a Hindu fundamentalist who has  identified India  with Hindutva. Few people seem to know that  Dr Ambedkar and Savarkar  were mutually  respectful  ;  Dr Ambedkar used very harsh words  about  Gandhiji and Nehru  but was always  appreciative of Sri Savarkar  as  one person who genuinely and wholeheartedly and furiously worked  for reforms in Hindu society especially elimination of  untouchability and  elevation  of the  Dalits to social equality with  the rest of the  Hindus. On the occasion   of the Silver Jubilee ( 1941)  celebrations of  Dr Ambedkar   Veer Savarkar   paid the  following tribute to Dr Ambedkar.  Sri Dhananjay Keer reproduced this  ( P- 346 ) in his book,  Dr Ambedkar: Life and Mission.


22.2  The most  important tribute  full of appreciation  and   estimation came from  Savarkar.  A political and social revolutionary was estimating the work of another revolutionary ! Offering his  hearty  felicitations  to Ambedkar on his Golden   Jubilee Savarkar observed: “  Ambedkar’s personality, erudition  and capacity to lead and organise would have by themselves  marked him out as  an outstanding asset to our nation.  But in addition to that inestimable  services he had  rendered to our Mother land in trying to stamp out untouchability and the results he has achieved  instilling  a manly spirit of self-confidence in millions of the  Depressed Classes  constitute an abiding , patriotic as well as humanitarian achievement. The very fact of the birth of such a towering   personality among the so called  untouchable  castes could not  but liberate their   souls  from self-depression and  animate them to challenge the supererogatory  claim of the so called “touchable”.


22.3 When Sri Savarkar  was implicated  in the crime of Mahatma  Gandhi’s assassination, Dr Ambedkar  was Minister for Law in Nehru’s Cabinet. He was convinced that Nehru was trying to  fix up  Savarkar in the conspiracy  to assassinate  Mahatma Gandhi. Sri Bhopatkar was defending Savarkar in the  case that  was foisted against  him. One day while in the guest house  of the Hindu Maha Sabha in Delhi   Bhopatkar received a telephone call . Caller did not announce  his name. He asked Bhopatkar  to come to  a particular place and at such and such a time  and meet him. 


22.4 Bhopatkar out of  curiosity went to that place specified as a Rendezvous. He was surprised to see Dr Ambedkar  in a non-governmental car.  That Ambedkar  told Mr. Bhopatkar that he had gone through case. It was all cooked up one and   it could be easily defended by Sri Bhopatkar for which purpose he gave  the arguments to be presented.  Such  is the regard and esteem that Dr Ambedkar   had  for Swatantra Veer Savarkar . Both  were neglected and relegated  by the Nehruvian  scribes. But truth has got the property of  never dying . Now the nation is paying its due tributes to both the  Swatantra Veer Savarkar and Dr Ambedkar.


22.5 The Nehruvian clan never had any respect to Dr Ambedkar and Savarker.  Nehru and Indira received the award Bharat Ratna during their  Prime MInistership in 1955 and 1971 respectively. Dr Ambedkar was awarded Bharat Ratna posthumously in 1990  when the Nehru clan was in power.  Savarkar  is not yet given .


23. Dr Ambedkar on Birth-day Celebrations and Statues :

23.1 Mahatma Gandhi was against  a holiday being  declared on his birth day 2 Oct. He wanted it to be a   “Day of All Work and No Holiday”. To declare my birthday a holiday should be classified as a cognizable offence.  The only use of my birthday that I have approved of  is intensive spinning or some such national service. That day must be all work and no play , he wrote.

23.2  On the  occasion of his  Golden Jubilee  in 1941  Dr Ambedkar had said , “   you have been  celebrating  my birthday for 15 years . I have never attended them. I have always been opposed to them .....let there be no more  celebrations.” 

23.3 Dr Ambedkar was  against  hero worship and told his admirers that there should be no statues for him .    There  is nothing wrong in  being grateful to great men who have rendered lifelong  services to the country . But there are   limits to gratefulness.  The Irish  patriot Daniel O’ Connel   said,  “no man can be grateful at the cost of his honour , no woman can be grateful at the   cost of her chastity. And no nation can be grateful at the   cost of its liberty. …. “Bhakti or hero -worship is a sure  road  to degradation and to eventual dictatorship” said Dr Ambedkar. 

23.4 On the erection of his  statue in Mumbai in 1947, Mahatma Gandhi  said: “I must desist emphatically from any proposal to spend any money on preparing statue of me  …….” Wise use of the lakhs of rupees  will consist in its being spent on some public utility . That would be  the best statue. 

23.5  Another  tribute of Bhaktas and  S.C’s vote- mongers  is to name universities, development and  welfare schemes and buildings and roads and  residential colonies after Dr. Ambedkar.  Earlier such homage had been mainly to Gandhi Nehru, Indira, and Rajiv. 

23.6  In light of these pronouncements of Mahatma Gandhi and Dr Ambedkar, it is  astounding that bhaktas have put and are putting thousands of   Mahatma’s statues earlier and now, of Dr Ambedkar.  Societies and political parties are competing in putting up  statues  of Dr Ambedkar and observing  his  birthday  .  It is noteworthy that by now  there are  more statues of Dr Ambedkar in the country than those of  Mahatma Gandhi.


24. Dr Ambedkar on  Agriculture and Population Growth:   ( Also see Annex#3 )


24.1 As early as in Nov 1938 Dr Ambedkar moved a Bill in the Bombay Legislative Assembly for birth control.  In  an 800 words speech in explained why birth control must be  imposed by law to tackle poverty and   especially ill-health  of the poor ( P 112 -14 Ambedkar: An Economist Extra-ordinary , Narendra Jadhav)

24.2 As long  ago as in 1951-52 in the  manifesto of the  Shedule Caste  Federation, Dr Ambedkar  referred to  population control and  reorganization of our agriculture. Here are his ideas (Source:  The book, Ambedkar: An Economist Extraordinaire by Narendra Jadav,  Konark Publishes  Pvt Ltd., New Delhi,  Seattle 2015)


·         “The problem of poverty is thus a double edged problem . From one point of view, it is a  problem of more  production both in agriculture and industry. From another point of view it is  a problem of controlling the excessive growth of population;  both sides are equally important. SCF proposes to fight battle against poverty on both fronts.


·         “For the purpose of reducing  population, it  would  advocate an intensive  propaganda in favour of  birth control among the people. It will advocate the opening of  birth control clinics in different parts of the country. It regards the growing rate in the increase of  population  in the country so grave and an evil that it would not hesitate to advocate more  drasting methods of controlling it.  (  8,420 words)




Annex: 1

While speaking in the Constituent Assembly at the  time of the final adoption (Nov 1949) of  the Constitution  of India, the  great  statesman Dr. B.R.Ambedkar made the following   observations:


“Here I could have ended. But my mind is so full of the future of our country that I feel I ought to take this occasion to give expression to some of my reflections thereon. On  26th January 1950, India will be an Independent country.  (Cheers) What would happen to her Independence? Will she maintain her Independence or  will she lose it again? This is the first thought that comes to my mind.  It is not that India was never an Independent country. The point is  that she once lost the Independence she had. Will she lose it a second time? It is this thought which makes me most anxious for the future.  What perturbs me greatly is the fact that not only India has once before lost her Independence, but she lost it by the infidelity and treachery of some of her own people. In the invasion of Sind by Mahommed-Bin-Kasim, the military commanders of King Dahar accepted bribes from the agents of Mohammed-Bin-Kasim and refused to fight on the side of their King. It was Jaichand who invited Mahommed Ghori to invade India and fight against Prithvi Raj and promised him the help of himself and the Solanki Kings. When Shivaji was fighting for the liberation of Hindus, the other Maratha noblemen and the Rajput Kings were fighting the battle on the side of Mogul Emperors. When the British were trying to destroy the Sikh Rulers, Gulab Singh, their principal commander, sat silent and did not help to save the Sikh Kingdom. In 1857, when a large part of India had declared a war of Independence against the British, the Sikhs stood and watched the event as silent spectators.

Will history repeat itself? It is this thought which fills me with anxiety. This anxiety is deepened by the realization of the fact that in addition to our old enemies in the form of castes and creeds we are going to have many political parties with diverse and opposing political creeds. Will Indians place creed above country? I do not know. But this much is certain that if the parties place creed above country, our Independence will be put in jeopardy a second time and probably be lost forever…….”

(Source: The Makers of Indian Constitution – Myth and Reality by Sri Seshrao Chavan)




Annex: 2

Dr Rajendra Prasad :


Whatever the Constitution may or may not provide, the welfare of the country will depend upon the way in which the country is administered.  That will depend upon the men who administer it.  It is a trite saying that  a country can have only the Government it deserves.  Our Constitution has provisions in it,  which appear to some to be objectionable from one point or another.  We must admit that he  defects are  inherent in the  situation in the  country and the people at large.  If the people who are elected are capable and  men of  character and integrity, they would be able to make the best even of a defective Constitution.  If they are  lacking in these, the Constitution cannot help the  country.  After all, a Constitution like a machine is a lifeless thing.  It acquires life  because of the  men who control it and operate it, and India needs today nothing more than a set of honest men who will have the interest of  the  country before them.  There is a fissiparous tendency arising out of  various elements in our life.  We have  communal differences, caste differences, language differences, provincial differences and so forth.  It requires men of strong character, men of vision, men who will not sacrifice the interests of the  country at large for the  sake of smaller groups and  areas and who will rise over the  prejudices which are born of these differences.  We  can  only hope that the country will throw up such men in abundance.   In India today I feel that  the work that confronts us is even more difficult than the  work, which we had when we were engaged in the  struggle.  We did not have then any conflicting claims  to reconcile, no loaves and fishes to distribute, no powers to share.  We have all these now, and the  temptations are really great.  We would pray to God that we should have the wisdom and the  strength to rise above them, and to serve the country, which we have succeeded in liberating”.

-Dr Rajendra Prasad - Speech at the final adoption of the Constitution



Annex # 3


Agriculture in SCF Manifesto in 1952 General Elections


“While the rapid industrialization of the country is very essential, in the opinion of the  Federation agriculture is bound to remain the foundation of India‘s  economy. Any scheme of increased production which does not take into account  the reconstruction of  Indian agriculture is doomed to  disappointment.


The Federation holds that for increased production in agriculture, the following plan must be adopted


Ø  “Agriculture must be mechanized. Agriculture in India can never become prosperous so long as the method of cultivation remains primitive.


Ø  “To make mechanised  farming possible, cultivation on smallholdings   must be replaced by large farms (ii) to increase the yield, there must be provision for adequate  manuring and for the supply of healthy seeds.



·         “It is not possible for the average agriculturist to adopt this plan and work up on it. He has no means to bear the  cost involved in the plan. The SCF believes that the plan would be put into effect by the  State. The first time, the  plan should be the responsibility of the  state. The state should supply all the  mechanization equipment to the farmer and at a rent to be recovered along with the land revenue (the land revenue has been abolished so the recovery could be when the state  buys the  produce by the  Food Corporation of India).



·         “With numerous small holdings, the problem of creating large  scale farms becomes very difficult. But the problem must be solved either by introducing co-operative farms or collective farms (neither is feasible in India. May be farming should be  corporatized as Tamilnadu is now envisaging)




·         “Although India is an agricultural  country, there is  a vast number of people who are  just  landless labourers, who  are eking  out miserable living and who are exploited, by titular “farmers” (non-farming landowners) and majority of whom are  untouchables and other backward  classes. There is no need while this body of landless labourers should be left to their fate resulting in their  misery and in the poverty of the  country.  This is all the more regrettable because the situation is not  beyond remedy. 


·         “In this connection, the following figures relating to available land in India are very instructive





Million acres


Total geographical area


Total area under agriculture


Total area under forest


Cultivable waste


Uncultivable waste


Current  fallow


Net land under agriculture




From these figures it is quite  clear that there are 93 mln acres of land which are cultivable waste which can be brought under cultivation. Surely it cannot be beyond modern science to reclaim this vast amount of cultivable  waste land and make it available for cultivation .The SCF will take up this  question .



·         “The prosperity of  agriculturist  must depend upon the maintenance of forest belts spread over the country.  Without  forest  belts, proper  degree of rainfalls will  not be  assured and agriculture in India will continue to be gamble in rain as it has always been in the past. The Federation would  urge for more and more afforestation of the uncultivable  waste land .



·         “Agriculture in the narrow sense of the term can never be  a profitable pursuit. It must be supplemented by  subsidiary industries which are called cottage  industries. But no cottage industry  worth the name will be possible without an adequate  supply of electricity.  Generation of electricity is, in the opinion of the  SCF, the foundation of  economic prosperity of India  ( V I Lenin said that communism is equal to electricity plus Soviets) and the  SCF will strive  for the realization of the river valley projects, the purpose of which is to produce irrigation , to produce electricity and  to stop  floods.



·         “Just as land  has been  neglected, so also landless labourers have been  neglected. The  SCF will reserve land  out of  uncultivated and  reclaimed land for the benefit of landless labourers and will also introduce  for them the principle of  minimum wages.



·         “The SCF believes that corruption in administration is wholly the creation of the  Congress  ( and regional parties) . The  Congress’s simply does not  believe in punishing the  corrupt . Charges have been made  by members of the  Congress itself against Congress ministers, of corruption and graft not in one state but in many states. The Congress High Command …….instead of making inquiries into these  charges and punishing the guilty ministers, the High  Command has   suppressed those who have  made such  charges openly, protecting the corrupt  and the   dishonest. (Regional parties have became family enterprises, proprietary and hereditary – THC)