Memoranda for Submission to the Chief Ministers of the Two Telugu States.


Atrocities of Razakars In Nizam s Dominion in 1946-48


Dt: 4/3/20


Atrocities  of Razakars

In Nizam’s Dominion in 1946-‘48


- Dr T.H.Chowdary*




1.1 The period 1927 to ‘47  in the territory of the Nizam of Hyderabad, especially Telangana area, witnessed  bestiality and barbarism resembling those indulged during the Moplah  rebellion ( Aug 21, 1921 to  Jan 31, 1922)  in the Malabar ( in Kerala) district of Madras  Province at the height of the Indian Muslims’ khilafat movement, joined in by Mahatma Gandhi- led Indian National Congress . The Moplahs are the progeny  of Muslim  Arab traders (7th  to 18th century AD) and Malabar’s indigent sections of fishing and   toiling women.  Moplah is the  corrupted  form of  Mapilla, the Malayalam word meaning, son-in-law.  They were noted for their fanaticism and  ferocity . During the  British rule,  there were periodic outbreaks of Moplah atrocities on Hindus and the British constabulary.  It took five months from August 1921 to Jan 1922 for the  British army units ( Goorkhas from Nepal, Chin-Kachin units of Burma included ) and  Indian soldiers to put down the Moplah rebellion during which  the Moplhas established a  Caliphate with one  Ali Musaliar as the Caliph and two other Moplahs as kings   in the rebel area .  The Moplahs  wielded  arms, looted rifles  from police stations, accumulated  swords, spears,  axes , lathis, knives  and other lethal weapons.  They numbered over 42,000. Over 2,400 of them were  killed by the Indian army and  over 4000 were wounded and the rest surrendered.  The surviving rebels  were given various sentences including  death and transportation for life. 


1.2 The Razakars ( Urdu for volunteers)  were a non-state, drilled and  armed violent gangs of Muslims specially organized by  Kasim Razvi, the fourth and last chief of the  Majlis Ittehadul-Muslameen   MIM for short (usually referred to as Ittehad). The MIM was founded in 1927 to keep the Nizam’s dominion ( Hyderabad) as  Muslim-ruled state, though 90% of its population was Hindu; under “paramountcy” of Great Britain till 14 August 1947 and  thereafter as a sovereign independent Islamic kingdom, the sovereignty being that  of Muslim, with the king (His Majesty Osman Ali Khan as) “emanation” of  Muslims sovereignty.


1.3 The Razakars  swelled from about 50,000 in 1946 to about 300,000 by August 1948 .  A few   thousand Harijans ( now self-styled as Dalits but designated by governments as schedule caste (S.C) Hindus ) forcibly or fraudulently converted to Islam formed part of the   Razakars.  They were  usually known and called as Ittehad Harijans. Rzakars were generally accepted  by most Muslims of the  Nizam’s Hyderabad state (a) as the  organized non-military  force supplementing  Nizam’s police and armed forces, to  fight communist guerilla squads who were  waging  battles against the Nizam’s feudal, extortionist rule and  liberating  hundreds of villages and  (b) terrorize people and  organizations desiring union with the rest of free India.  The MIM and its  Razakars had the indirect support of the Nizam and his government ; it had financial support from many Muslim industrialists and businesses. Many among government officers and other ranks ( 90% Muslims  ) were  Ittehadists. So were persons in the state and  private sector  enterprises. The Razakars therefore were never short of funds and  facilities.  The Nizam did not accede to India or Pakistan on 15.08.1947. When conflict between the  Union of India  and  Nizam’s state was becoming  certain, the  Rzakars were,  through the  Ittehad’s 52 control  and Command centers in the  state,  seconded to the  Nizam’s armed forces. 


1.4 The difference between the Moplah rebels of Malabar (Kerala) and  Razakars in Hyderabad was : the  Moplah’s rose in revolt against the established British -ruled Indian state to establish an Islamic caliphate ( they did establish one for  some time) and rule over a vastly Hindu majority. They had to terrorize and  subdue and convert and humiliate the Hindus by bestial force and  fight the   British Indian army.  Different from that, the Razakas had an established  600 year old  Muslim state under their  control; with the  state  police  operating in support of them;  they had only to terrorise the Hindu majority into acceptance of the  established Muslim rule for-ever. The Ittehad took to set upon increasing the  Muslim population by import of Muslims from other parts of India, Ethiopia and  Yemen and converting the schedule castes by force, fraud and inducement to  Islam. There is therefore  some difference  in the ferocity and bestiality of the atrocities committed against  Hindus by the Moplahs  in Malabar  on the one hand and the  Razakars in Hyderabad  state on the  other hand . They were similar but differed in intensity.


1.5 The Razakars were initially fighting the  communist guerrillas who were  liberating villages in Telangana from Nizam’s feudal and  exploitative rule. In this  fight, the Razakars  had the support of the  State’s police  ( and army when  necessary).  When conflict with the Union of India was becoming certain , the  Razakars struck a silent alliance with communists to fight the common enemy;  for communists, the capitalist, Anglo-American Imperialism’s stooge, the Nehru government and  for Razakar’s  Sardar Patel’s Hindu Raj.  The Nizam patronized the Razakars who soon became the Frankenstein.  In the  final struggle with the Indian Union, in Sept 1948  the Razakars evaporated; their planted Prime Minister Mir Laik Ali became a captive ( who later escaped in the  dress of a Burqua-clad “lady”); Kasim Razvi, the Salar, Field Mashall was imprisoned  and eventually allowed to go to Pakistan and His Majesty and  His Exalted Highness the Nizam, Sir Oman Ali Khan became a subject of the Indian Union and  a Raja Pramukh for some time. He died in Sept 1965.  We shall now trace, the birth, growth, deeds and  death (temporary) of the  Razakars and  their  rebirth as All India MIM .


2. Nizam’s Origin & His Dominions


2.1 Descent & End


      One Khulijkhan came from Turkey and got into the service of Shahjahan in 1656

      His grandson, Khumruddin got title  Nizam-ul-Mulk under Auranzeb and came to  Deccan as  Subahdar

      On decline and decay of Mogul power, Nizam declared independence in 1724.  This first Asaf Jahi ruler died in 1748.

      The 7th Nizam Mir Usman Alikhan ruled from 1911 to 1948

      On 17 Sept 1948, he surrendered to the  Indian Union; came under military rule for some time and then designated Rajpramukh, under, representative popular rule

      Nizamshahi ended with the  dead of the  Nizam on 24 Feb 1967


2.2 Nizam’s Dominion  (came to be called a “country” by the  Nizam & Razakars)


      Area : 212,480  Km2 of which Telangana is  112,077 Km2

      Population  in 1947 – 18  mln of which Telangana’s was 50% ; Muslims  were ( 9 to 11)%

      Telangana was under Muslim rule  for 600 years ( 1347 to 17 Sept 1948)

      Bahmanis- 1347 -1518

      Qutubshahis (Golkonda)  : 1518-1687

      Moguls : 1687to 1724

      Nizam (Asafjahis) : 1724 to 17 Sept 1948

      Nizam’s personal lands ( Estate) : 25% of Nizam’s dominion ; called Atraf Balda / Sarfe Kha.  The revenue from this area was Nizam’s; not his State’s.

      Samstans:  14      Jagirs : 500

      Telangana : 16 districts ; Marathwada : 5


      Berar (Ahmednagar, Amaravati called (khandesh) was ceded  to  the East India Company in 1835 against a debt of Rs 60 cr  . Nizam’s eldest son was titled “Prince of Berar”. 

      The only vestige of  Nizamshahi in Berar was “flying Nizam’s flag  and  one gun salute” every year on the birth day of  the Prince of Berar


2.3   Population


      Telugus : 50% ;  Marathi: 25% ;  Kannada: 11%

      Urdu & Hindi : 14%

      Village officials; Patwari’s, Patels, Deshpandes and  Deshmukhs - mostly Hindus

      Nizam state employees : > 90% Muslims 

( for 11% Muslim population, 13% after settling 800, 000 Muslims from other parts of  India  during Aug 1947 and Sept 1948)

      No Panchayats or Zill a Parishads ; no elected bodies ; no legislature

      Persian as official language till 1880s

      Urdu in schools, colleges, University , in government & High Court till end 1948.

      The 6th Nizam had a Hindu, Kishan Parshad  as Diwan/ Prime Minister



2.4 The Nizam; Islamic Supremacist


      The last and  7th Nizam ( 1911-1948) Mir Osman Ali Khan removed  Sir Kishan Prasad as Diwan   saying “Tu kishan pershad hain to mein khuda parshad hun”. 

      Since then only Muslims were  Prime Ministers. Sir Akbar Hydari, Mirza Ismail, Nawab of Chattari (twice) ( all from outside the  Nizam’s dominions).  The  last Prime Minister   was a Hyderabadi, the notorious Mir  Laik Ali (Jan 1948 to Sept 17, 1948) .

      The last Nizam wrote some poetry too; here is his poem

 Islam aloft and Hinduism down”

              ( cited by Sardar Patel when he met the  Nizam in Feb 1949 after liberation in Sept


Bandh nakheen huva

Sunke nidyae takdeer

Jaljala ahi gava rifta

yeh junnar  mainbhi


Meaning: “The sound of the  conch fell silent  as the  sound of  kalma rose.  The soil spewed by the earth-quake covered the  Hindus’ sacred threads and their other ( cultural) markers.


2.5 The Muslim conviction and slogan were


       Anal Malik – Every Muslim is ruler

       Sovereignty is not with the Nizam but in the  Muslim kaum (community) – roared the Ittehad and  Razakars  


2.6  Nizams were mortally afraid of  Marathas and  Hyder Ali and Tippu Sultan


      Nizams sought French protection ; gave the circar districts (Coastal Andhra) as price. The East India Company. later snatched them from the French

      Nizam sought British protection and ceded Rayala Seema districts to the  British East India Company.

      Thus what is  now A.P was ceded by the  Nizam to East India Company/ Britain    before end of 18th century. Nizam was left with  Telangana, Marathwada and  Karnataka Districts

      The British kept contingents of their army in Secunderabad to “protect” the Nizam


2.7  Aggrandizement & Exhaustion


      The 7th Nizam, Osman Alikhan used to confer (sell) titles Jung, Nawaz Zung and Yar Zung ( ascending order) to whosoever gave more and  most Ashrafis (  1 tula or 10gms gold coin)

      The Nizam got “Begums” from the Royal families in Turkey

      The Nizam constructed “Serais”  in Makka & contributed significant sums to  the  British war effort in World Wars, I & II

      He was given the title “ HEH  - His Exalted Highness (Sardar Patel said of him: His Exhausted Highness after liberation.




3. Muslimification of Hyderabad : Deendar’s and  Ittehad’s Mission


3.1. Deendars:

3.1.1 In the mid 1920s Hazrat Maulana Siddique Deendar founded what came to be known as  Deendars.  He claimed to be the reincarnation of Channa Basaveswar, founder of the  Lingayat Sect in the 18th century.  Four of his lieutenants were declared as  avatars of Vyasa, Srikrishna, Narasimha & Veerabhadra. They  wore green turbans & saffrom robes. The  Deendars  were chiefly engaged in converting  Scheduled Caste Hindus  to  Islam through  false and foul propaganda,  fraud , inducement and sometimes, by force .


3.1.2  One of the Deendar’s books, Awanul-Nas contained the following exhortation:  “My Muslim brethren! The Qoran has taught you only one thing : that is, to change the country in which you live into Pakistan ; in other words , to compel others to drink waters of the Qoran-e-Majid . A bowl containing one quarter milk and  three  quarters dung cannot be called  clean. Whether it is Arabisatn or Turkestan or Afghanistan, so long as it contains kafiristan in its territory, it can’t be  called Pakistan”.


3.1.3 Siddique pursued his proselytizing activities vigorously by declaring a jihad against the shrines of   Hindus and issued a public appeal for one lakh volunteers. The Nizam took no action against him. On Jan 10, 1932 a large number of Hindus submitted a  petition to the Nizam to check Deendars’  activities. They continued to function till 1948 on a very limited state as the government imposed some restrictions on his  activities.  The Razakars  looked upon the  Deendars with contempt but tolerated them as convenient  allies for terrorization of  Hindus .


3.2 Majslis Ittehadul Muslameen  (MIM, popularly known as Ittehad)


 In order to promote Islamism among the Muslim population of Hyderabad and inspire them to support  the Nizam’s bid to preserve the Hyderabad state as independent  sovereign Muslim kingdom outside a future independent  India, the MIM was founded in 1926 by one Mohamood Nawaz Khan , a former civil servant of Nizam’s  government . It had the patronage of the Nizam.  Nawaz Khan was succeed by Bahadur Yar Zung in 1928. Under him, the  Ittehad  had become brazenly  Islamist and  militant. Nawaz Khan declared , “ we are the sovereign in the  deccan”. In 1938 the Constitution of the  Ittehad was amended to include “ the person and the throne of the king of this country, Hyderabad are   emanations  of the political sovereignty and social supremacy of their  community and shall be maintained forever.” The Ittehad was, in initial years uniting Muslims and indoctrinating them with the  idea of preserving the Nizam’s dominion as a Muslim state without ever merging  with the rest of India. Bhadur Yar Zung died in 1944. He was succeeded  by one Abdul Hasan Syed Ali .  He was eased  out by the  Nizam as he was too soft and not unfriendly to the State Congress. Kasim Razvi, a law graduate from Aligarh Muslim University was small time lawyer in Latur  in Marathwada was elected as the  President of the  MIM  in 1946   Razvi, chose Sayyed   Taqui-ud-din, ICS ex-Secretary of the  Nizam’s government as his Adviser. Under Kasim Razvi’s leadership, the Ittehad raised the volunteer corps, Razakars and transformed it into an armed  fascist  organization.



4. Kasim Razvi’s ideology and  rise of the Razakars


4.1 Razvi insisted on the  right of Muslims to enslave Hindus “who are  but kafirs and worshipers of stone and monkey, who drink cow’s urine and eat cow-dung;  who are   barbarians in every sense of the term” . The Razakars  carried fire and sword to hundreds of hamlets and  unarmed villages. He believed that if sufficiently harassed and frightened, Hindus  would not look to Indian Union and agree to 50 :50 representation of  Muslims and  Hindus (including Christians, Parsis and Sikhs) in any future representative legislature. He ranted, “ if the Indian Union ventures to enter  Hyderabad the invader will see the burning everywhere  of the   bodies of 165 lakhs.  We Muslims will not spare  others when we ourselves are not allowed to exist”.


4.2  The pledge  of the Razakars was: “ in the name of Allah I do hereby promise to fight to the last to maintain  supremacy of the Muslim power in the Deccan “. In Jan 1948, the Razakars numbered 30,000. By Aug 1948 they swelled to 300,000. Their target was  to raise it to  500,000 before end 1948. Women were also to be included among the  Razakars. With spears and swords and rifles,  they raided villages  within  Telangana and across the border  in the Indian Union, indulging in rape, plunder, burning of  homes and  killing  anyone who resisted . They were supplied with  trucks and jeeps by the  Nizam’s government; given free transport on Nizam Railways and the Nizam’s road transport corporation. Sidney Cotton, a notorious  freebooter was smuggling arms  into  Hyderabad  by air and these were  shared  between  the Nizam’s army and   Razakars.  Head Quarters  of Razakars was Darul –us.Salam in the old city . It had 52 Command and Control centers distributed in the Nizam’s territory. 


4.3  Under official pressure and private harassment by Razakars and freebooting  goonda  bands ,  under threats of violence , Hindus were prevented from repairing or    building temples  in any locality where  any Muslim resided ; temples were desecrated, Hindu religious teachers were prohibited to deliver discourses.  The Ittehad had its  official daily Rahbar besides 15 dailies and weekly publications by its businessmen supporters . 


·         On 27 July 1947 Ittehad celebrated Independence Day in Hyderabad City. Razvi declared that Hyderabad was free and independent and  threatened direct action (like Mohammed Ali Jinnah’s Muslim League launched on 16 Aug 1946 to divide India  and  create  Pakistan) against the   Nizam’s government if it ever acceded to the  Indian Union.

·         “Weapons Week” was celebrated  in March 1948 at Dar-us-salam, the official s HQ of the  Ittehad (it is now with MIM, its successor).  On the  last day 31st March 1948 Razvi took the  salute at the  march past of the  Razakars and spoke:

·         If India  is free today, remember it  was due to the  sword and arms of  Muslims . (The victory of India  over   Pakistan  in Kargil in 1999 was claimed by a Muslim leader of Samajwadi party of UP to be due to  Muslim soldiers in the   Indian Army- Razvi relives  in the words of   this  “secular” ally of Mulayam Singh)

·              After the rally at the  end of the “Weapons Weak” was over, Razvi ranted: “Hyderabad is an Islamic State.  the Indian Union is trying to wipe out this Muslim rule from the  Deccan. Remember that there are  four-and-a-half crores of  Muslims in the   Dominion, looking to us to raise the banner of this  Islamic  State...

·         “Ittehad expects every Muslim to do his duty.  I am glad that Muslim women are also coming  forward to help the  Razakars.  I appeal to my Muslim sisters to support whole-heartedly this  movement, and, if possible to train themselves in the art of self-defence.  The time is not far off when we have to throw our entire  weight to maintain the  integrity of this Islamic State.  We have  been ruling the Deccan for the  last 800 years and we shall rule it whether the Indian Union likes it or not.

·         “Power has come to the  hands of  the  Indian  Union after one thousand years. They are not capable of  ruling. That is the reason why they lost it to the  Muslims .  Now, when that power has come to them, they think they can browbeat us and  terrorise us by bullying  an d blustering...

·         “When once the Indian Union makes any aggression on us, remember the  four and a half  crores of Muslims will raise the  banner of  revolt. We will give back in the  same coin and speak to them in the   same  language that they will understand...

·         “I know every one of you is imbued with the  spirit of  jehad.  Remember Karbala.  A Muslim is a warrior . He is a first-class fighting man. Indeed, Indian History is full of glorious episodes of the  heroism of the  Muslims.  If India is free to-day, remember it was due to the  sword and  arms of the Muslims. A Muslim is a born fighter and a protector of the weak.. His one central ambition is to fight for a  right and just cause. He will be guided by the  great tenets of  Qoran.  Now, my Muslim brothers, onward march. Never put back your sword into the   sheath till your  object is  achieved. Stop not till you reach your  goal (cries of Delhi Chalo). Hound out the  enemy. Do not  spare him. Mind not  your  troubles.  We believe in God.  We have no other friends  except Allah, who has created this  Islamic State and  who shall never  let us  down. Qoran is in one  hand  and the  sword is in the  other, let us march forward; cut our enemies to pieces; establish our Islamic supremacy...

·         “I know the helplessness of our Muslim brothers in the   Indian Union. Let us by our example of unsurpassed heroism, courage and vision, extend the  much-needed succour to them. They will be our ‘Fifth Columnists’ in the Union. Now the  Union is  thinking of a  ‘Fifth Column’ among us. We shall turn the tables  and they will understand  the  character of the Mussalman.. A Hindu who is a kafir, a worshipper of stone and  monkey (laughter), who drinks cow’s urine and  eats cow dung in the  name of  religion (renewed laughter) , and who is a barbarian, in every sense of  the word, wants to rule us!  What an ambition and  what a day-dream!...

·         “My heart is bleeding. The Hindus want to repeat the  same holocaust that they had  staged at Delhi.  Their  methods of  coercing  Hyderabad to be  a mere vassal is  the  typical example of  the  Bania’ rule. The only answer to them is the naked sword.  I may be  here to-day, and  perhaps  not tomorrow. But I can assure you, my brethren, if you want to see Kasim Razvi in the  midst of our life and  death struggle, look for him not in the   palatial buildings of Banjara, or in pleasant tea parties, but in the  midst of the  battle-fields (cries of Allah Ho Akbar and  Siddisque Deccan Zindabad).  You will see me  slaying or being slain with sword in my hand and the  Qoran in my body....

·         “I repeat to you the  couplet of the  immortal  poet Iqbal: ‘What’s it in life, life is only the   means to the  end, the eternal end; to lay it down in the cause of Islam’.  Now I bid you god-speed;  protect your Islamic State; protect your blood brothers in the  Indian  Union and your Islamic rule”

·         “  On April 8, 1948 in another  violent speech  Kasim Razvi raved: “ Hyderabad will shortly recover  the Ceded districts and the  day is not far off when the   waves of the Bay of Bengal will be washing the  feet of our sovereign, who will not be  called the Nizam of Hyderabad and Berar, but also of the  Northern Sarkars.”  No wonder the MIM is now extending its  activities to these  areas.

·         In his speech to his  crowds, on May 3, 1948 he spoke:

·         ”What kind of  freedom have you (India)?  You (India) presume to deliver sermons on freedom to the  world. But just look at yourself, look at your  condition and see what kind of  freedom you have  achieved.  There is Pakistan in your neighbourhood; take a lesson from it.  It can teach you constitution and law. The main purpose behind law is peace and prosperity.  Everywhere in India you find  anarchy. (It is) a country where  there is no peace and  security and  where  loot and  murder are of daily occurrence  (on the other hand) there is no oppression and  anarchy in your State.”

(---Take a lesson from Pakistan ! (Sunnis killing Shias and  vice versa; both killing Ahmedias and  Christians ; and  forcibly converting Hindus – should India  learn to do so?)

·         On June 9, 1949, he raved: “Muslims have always created a new geography for themselves.  very soon the  boundaries of Hyderabad  will expand far beyond Delhi, and the Asafia Flag will fly over Delhi. Yes, I am seeing the  Nizam (Asafe-Sabia) marching towards Delhi.

·         On June 10, 1948  he said: “Following the example of Muslims of early days they should not remain content  with the  small piece of  Pakistan ... . We are re-writing the  map of  India  by bringing  together a union of Jumna and Musi ( the river which flows through   Hyderabad).  We are the  grandsons of  Mahmood Ghaznavi and the  sons of  Babar (were they Indians or foreigners).  When determined, we shall fly the  Asaf Jahi flag on the Red Fort.

·         “They (the Muslims ) would not be  content with one  Pakistan in the  Deccan, ‘‘ They would knit India and the  world  into Pakistan .  Did not their  forebears do the same thing 1,300 years ago?’ he concluded.

·         In another  speech on June 12, he raved: “It is  because , as they themselves  say, when Lord Mountbatten leaves India, massacres will start again. My Hindu brethren, the  Muslims have  ruled  over you (Hindus ) for 900 years; therefore, I have sympathy with you. If I  had  wished, I could  have exterminated you. ( A Muslim leader of Hyderabad declared recently that if the  Indian police would  not intervene for 15 mnts, his men could wipe out all this not inspired by Razvi)

·         Razvi had distributed arms to his followers and  given orders for indiscriminate massacre when the  Indian army entered Hyderabad. (Fortunately the “heroic” Islamic warriors dared not to kill any. On the contrary, barbers became the busiest people shaving off beards on the  week following 17 Sept 1940, when Hyderabad was liberated).


5. Razakar’s Actions & Butcheries


5.1 Razakar’s atrocities are a  pale derivative of Moplahs’ horrendous atrocities. These are classified as:


A)        Brutality dishonoring women

B)        Flaming and flaying people alive 

C)        Wholesale slaughter of men, women and children

D)        Forcibly converting people in thousands and murdering those who refused to be


E)        Throwing half dead people into wells and  leaving the  victims  for hours to struggle till

 finally released from their  sufferings by death

F)        Burning a great many and looting practically all Hindu and  Christian houses in  the

 disturbed area in which even Moplah  women and children  took part , and robbing

 women of even garments on their bodies 

G)         Cruelly  insulting the religious sentiments of  Hindus  by desecrating and  destroying

 numerous  temples

H)        Killing cows within  temple precincts, putting their entrails on the  holy idols and

 hanging the skulls on the walls and roofs


The Razakars added one more atrocity: Hanging  people heads  down, legs tied to tree branches and lighting fires below the heads of the  hanging people. (62 Karasevaks were incinerated in closed rail cars   in Godhra in 2002 ).  Burning at the stake was the Christians’ practice during the Inquisition in Europe (Goa witnessed Inquisition under Portuguese  rule. Joan of Arc (France)  was burnt  alive as a witch. After  centuries, she was canonized as a saint. 


5.2 What Razakars did in Nizam’s Hyderabad state


      Raid villages  reported to harbour agitators for union with India: Communists (upto April 1948) Congress men, Arya Samajists, Hindu Mahasabhaites…

      Loot, molest, rape, abduct, burn, lift cattle, sheep, lambs, poultry; rice, pulses; firewood

      Snatch forcibly nose-studs (mukku pudakalu), ear –studs (pogulu), gold bangles, gold and diamond chains, leaving bleeding bodies

      Collect women, strip them naked, force them to dance batukamma (folk dance)  and outrage them in front of husbands and children

      Identify suspected leaders; and resisters cut them into pieces (hands, legs, noses, necks) ; hang them by the legs and  put fire below so they are roasted  alive.

      Set fire to whole villages

      Raid Union Territory villages, carry out some of the  above  atrocities  under protection of Nizam’s constabulary

      Razakars ran seven Urdu dailies and  six Urdu weeklies

      Radio Deccan (Nizam’s Akaash Vani) and Deccan Airways were  staffed & officered by Ittehad persons

      Ittehad & Razakars were funded by state-owned companies (NZM’s Railway, Road Transport…) and Muslim -owned companies  (eg:  Laik ALI’s Construction  Company )

      Established lobbies in Delhi, UK and in Pakistan ) after 14 Aug 1947 to convas for Nizam’s independence

      Overawed Nizam; all high officers were  Ittehad placed

      Moderate Prime Ministers ( eg: Sir Mirza Ismail) and others inclined to  negotiate some terms ( short of accession) were got removed

      Prime –Ministers lasted only if they toed the Ittehad and  Razvi’s line

      Mir Laik Ali,  Ittehad financier, Pakistan’s delegate to UN, Jinnah – recommandee was the Prime- Minister  (Jan 1948 to 17 Sept 1948) to deal with India, arm Nizam’s military and Razakars

In short, Razakars, a ragtag, rowdy, blood-thirsty, Islamist, para-military  armed gangs of  nearly 200,000 men by mid 1948; and over 300,000 by Sept 1948 overawed Nizam’s government , and frightened Hindus swearing to preserve Hyderabad “country” as a Muslim /Islamist, independent, sovereign state, prepared to wage war against the  Indian Republic .  They were seconded to the   Nizam’s  army during the  Police Action.


5.3 Some Butcheries of  Razakars


      Razakars stopped a train at Gandlapur ( near Wadi), pulled out  women, disrobed them, forced them to perform “bathukamma”; an immensely popular group dance performed all over Telangana invoking the blessigns of  Gouri, Lord Shiva’s consort),  beat them on delicate  parts of the  body and  raped them. In the first  week of Sept 1947; Nehru narrated this incident to the  press in Delhi but  did nothing!

      On first Friday of December 1939, in Hyderabad, After prayers, 200 Razakars looted  shops, molested women on the  streets, shouted : “kafironko maaro”.  They saw Sri Vedprakash, an Arya Samajist functionary and  cut him to pieces with swords and  knives.  He was earlier warned not to  do Arya Samaj work and  was threatened to face death if he would not convert to Islam.

      Janagaon : In one baithak of  Majlis Ittehadul Bainul Muslameen founded  Ostensibly to promote peace between Hindus and Muslims. A Hindu Sathagopachari narrated a  ghastly act of Razakars and pleaded for  stopping them . On the  2nd day he was waylaid and  shot dead; a witness was warned, he would meet the same  fate, if he revealed the murder!

      Humnabad: Razakars attacked a Dussehra procession; shouted “kafironko maaro” Allaho Akbar; pulled out sarees from women  killed a hundred men and  women with swords; sloganeered “Usman Ali Khan zindabad”

      Hanumakonda 1939: Dassehra procession was attacked by a pack of  Ittehad Harijans (converts to Islam) and hundreds wounded.

      Bairanpalli: Villagers organised protection force; Razakar attacks were twice repulsed.  A third organised attack led by the Muslim collector killed 182 villagers lined up, threw the corpses into wells by musterd Harijans of the  village  – Nizam’s police, soldiers & Razakars operated in combination. Nizam’s government described this  operation in Muslim countries as “Suppression of Hindu rebellion

      Inanur P.S village: Razakars raided, caught hold of  five Brahmins, hanged them heads down from a tree branch on the road , set fire below,  till reduced to  ashes  -purpose: Frighten Hindus to submission.

       Razakars raided; resisters put to sword, women raped, severed head of the  leader put on a lance, paraded houses, looted and set on fire .

      July 1948 Razakars raided Saidabad: Near Gulbarga, scores of women were stripped and raped in the  open, in presence of  husbands, children and ornaments were snatched 

      Bibinagar Jan 10, 1948: Khasim Razvi was felicitated. As crowning event, houses were  looted and set on fire;  women were raped, Razvi warned people not to oppose  Nizam’s independence

      Amarchinta, Nellilkondi, Appampalli, Parkala, Lambada’s tandas were invaded by Razakars as  they gave shelter to Comrades. Lambada women blew mirchi powder into rapists’ eyes and  cut off the  male organs of those trying to rape. 


      Hyderabad: Shoebullah Khan :Nationalist  Muslims’ Chitravadha 


Shoebullah Khan (b. 12 Oct 1920) was an young, spirited, nationalist Muslim  journalist, Editor of Urdu paper Imroze . On 19 Aug 1948, the Ittehad Razakars observed “NANAZ” day.  Nanaz village was a Nizam’s  enclave in Union territory.  When on 24 July 1948. Indian soldiers were on way to  Barsi, Razakars attacked them; all  Razakars were  killed. Razakars observed Nanaz day on 19 Aug where at Razvi made a blood- thirsty, inflammatory speech and called for death of  every Muslim writing against Nizam and  Razakars and  for accession to India.  On the night of  21st Aug 1948, when Shoebullah Khan was returning from his office , he was shot thrice; he fell down; his hands were  severed.  He was smitten by  sword on several parts of the body. He died.  Ittehad’s papers described it as out of  “personal enmity!”. 

( This is just like the  Prophet requiring  his followers to silence Asma Bint Marwan, a lady poetess who was lampooning him.  A convert crept into her house in the  night, removed the baby at breast and cut off her head and presented it to the  prophet)


      Bidar:  Between the middle of  Feb and  end of May 1948, the Ittehad Harijans supported by Razakars and Nizam’s police devastated 129 villages in the district ; burnt 1000 houses , looted lakhs worth of property, killed several hundred villagers of both  sexes and committed rape on dozens of women. 


      On the 21 of Feb 1948  the Razakars  burnt down 55 houses. kidnapped two women and looted and  destroyed  their  property.  In Chitanoka taluka   loot, arson murder and rape were perpetrated in 12 villages.


      Gortha:  On 10 May 1948 the Ittehad Harizans and Razakars devastated this village . It was almost  abandoned . The  sub-inspector a Muslim along with six constables  stayed in the  Lakshmi temple.   All  houses  belonging to  Hindus except Harijans and Muslims were burnt.  More than 200 persons were  murdered and the dead bodies were  left half burnt. This village was attacked by 300 Razakars. The  villagers resisted for two days but were overwhelmed. 


      From October 1947 ( when the  Stand-Still Agreement between Nizam & Indian Union) till 03 April 1948, there were 260 Razakar raids on villages.


5.4  How Telangana Fought the  Razakars


      Petitions to Nizam

      Andhra Mahasabha – Communist Wing  took to arms

      Village level Defence Squads – slings, axes , lances, desi rifles, weapons

      Peoples Army – raided  police stations, looted arms and  engaged Razakars & police in fights

      Communists  liberated about  3000 villages, established self-rule, no taxes  to Nizam, village officials  & police expelled from liberated villages

      Individual resisance in homes raided by Razakars – chilli powder lathis and  knives  and even swords, boiling water as weapons

      Women heroines like Chakali Ailamma

      Komaram Bhim  -  of Gond tribe liberated 12 villages in Adilabad .  His Gudem was raided by Nizam’s  police and  goondas.  In the  ensuing battle, Bhim and dozens died  fighting.

      Arya Samaj – Satyagraha

      Congress Petitions  & Satyagraha


6. Communists  as Foes and  Friends of Razakars (1946-51)


6.1 The Communists were a late presence in Nizam’s Hyderabad State, while they started functioning as a party in India since 1925.  Since then they have been having a cozy relationship with the  Muslim League in India and have been supporting Muslims’  causes- Partition of India in the  1940s and opposition to CAA; NPR  & NCR now.


6.2 In 1940  Communists in Hyderabad City  founded The  Comrades Association. The Communist Party was  under ban  in Nizam’s state at that time. The Communists in the Telangana area of the  Nizam’s dominion  worked as an organized  faction in the Andhra  Maha Sabha under the leadership of Comrade Rarvinarayana Reddy ( This Reddy was elected as  a Communist MP in the  1952  general elections to the Parliament. He secured the   highest number of   votes in the  country, more than  even  Jawaharlal Nehru in that   election ). The Andhra Maha Sabha  gave cover to the   Communists  who went on building up their cadres  as an organized group.  In May 1943, they began   to take leading positions  in the  Sabha in an open manner. Finally in March –April 1945,  by which time the Communist Party in India  had the ban lifted, the Telangana communists were openly functioning as a rival  Andhra Mahasabha.  In 1946 The CPI launched and led  an armed struggle against the  feudal,  extremely  oppressive,  inhuman rule of the  Nizam, his overwhelmingly Muslim officers and police and collaborating village officials ( Patels, Patwaris, Deshmukhs, Deshpandes ) who were mostly  Hindus )


6.3 In the period 1945-1948, the communists were  heroes, fighting the feudal rule of  the Nizam, his police and their Razakar supplements. They were sheltered and loved by the people.  Theirs was indeed a heroic struggle in defence of people, the  exploited  peasants.


   They liberated about 3000 villages in three districts from the Nizam & Razakar rule

   Under COMINFORM’s and Stalin’s instructions and guidance  from Com. Rajni Palme Dutt of  the Communist  Party of Great Britain (CPGB), P.C. Joshi was removed as Secretary of CPI; and  replaced by Com B.T Ranadive  in early 1948 to stage an insurrection and put an  end to Nehru government . The CPI was banned in India .

   The CPI launched an armed struggle ( revolution) to pull down Nehru government describing it as a lackey of Anglo-American Imperialism. CPI took to guerilla war against India ( like Naxalites since late 1970s) in Malabar (Kerala), Andhra, Telangana; West Bengal  and Bombay

   The B.T Ranadive ( who replaced Com P.C. Joshi in Jan 1948)  led the  CPI to  pull down Nehru government by armed insurrection. The CPI held that the  liberated territory of the  communists should be the nucleus of the envisaged communist Republic of India.  They could defeat and  dethrone the  weak Nizam’s government and  use Telangana  as a base for  conquest of whole of India ( as the  Chinese Communists did, using liberated Yeman as base)

   Nizam issued a firman in June 1947 saying he would be  independent  sovereign when Britain leaves India  on 15-08-1947.

   On Aug 27, 1947 the Nizam issued another firman declaring that he assumed the  status of an  independent sovereign . The Ittehad and  Razakars started referring to him as “His Majesty”.

   Communists declared that the Nizam should not accede to India as India  would be  a capitalist state

   In April 1948 Razakars clandestinely contacted Maqdoom Moi-ud-din, the underground communist leader for  joint  resistance to Indian Union as conflict ( war) seemed inevitable.

   Ittehad daily, Mee Zan shifted brutal treatment of rich  landlords by communists  to Congress men !

   On 4 May 1948  Nizam lifted the ban on communists

   Communists advised their  guerilla squads to obstruct and oppose Indian army’s entry into their  liberated territory ( 3000 villages in Nalgonda; Warangal; Khamman and Karimnagar districts)

   Khasim Razvi instructed  Razakars not to  “invade” the communist villages .

   The communists believed they could liberate the  whole of  Nizam’s territory and use it as “India’s Yenan” to liberate whole of India and establish “peoples (new) democracy” as in China.

   When the  Nizam’s army and  Razakars  were routed  by and  surrendered to the Indian army  on 17 Sept 1948, the Razakars made over their arms and ammunition and jeeps to  communists who were determined to fight the  Indian army to preserve and expand their liberated territory.

   While the  communist guerillas were  decimated in a few months in other parts of India, in Telangana, in the  liberated villages, the  communists  fought India’s special police and  even the  army till mid 1951 , three years even after liberation and integration of Hyderabad with the Indian Union. 

   Losing the  battles, a communist delegation of  Ajoy Ghosh, S A Dange, Chandra Rajeswara Rao & M Basavapunnaiah secretly  went to Moscow, and reported the  pitiable  plight of the  revolution in Telangana (India’s Yenan).  They were  advised to call off the armed struggle and  forge a Popular Democratic Front; sue for peace and  participate in the  General  Elections 1951-’52.


6.4  Thus ended the Razakar – Communist War & Love affair.  But Telangana continues to supply the top leaders for Naxalites, Peoples War Groups , CPI (ML), urban Naxalism,  Progressive Democratic Students Union (PDSU), Revolutionary Students Union (RSU); Students’ Federation of India (SFI); All-India Students Federation (AISF)  and half a dozen communist parties with different letters in parenthesis.  Almost all of them are  patrons of  Razakarist / Pakistaniat Islamist groups and  parties and  Ambedkarite – Periar dalit groups in Universities. Prakash Ambedkar’s party is in alliance with AIMIM in Maharashtra just as Ittehad Harijans were  in alliance with  Kasim Razvi’s Razakars. All these Marxist/Communist outfits are now in concert with Muslims’ anti-CAA, NPR & NCR agitations. 


7. Pt. Sundarlal Committee’s Report


7.1 During the  four - day Police Action ( 13 Sept to 17th Sept 1948) more than 100,000 Razakars were working in the   Nizam’s army as combatants, auxiliaries and  vigilantes to see that no Hindus collaborated with  the advancing Indian  army. After the surrender of the Nizam and the takeover of the  administration by Gen. Chaudhry,  a few prominent  Muslim nobles  represented to Prime Minister, Jawaharlal Nehru that  the Indian Army  massacred  Muslims  and some Hindu groups had  committed atrocities on Muslim  women and families.  200,000 Muslims were alleged to have been killed .  These figures are mentioned at p-211 of the book, “Hyderabad 1948 : An Avoidable Invasion” by Syed Ali Hashmi, published by Pharos Media in 2017  Jawaharlal  Nehru was known  to be sympathetic to Muslims’ causes  and that it was with great  reluctance that he agreed  for the Police Action to be undertaken.  He   greatly  cared  for his international reputation as a peace -loving statesman.  While never  strongly reacting to the reports of the Razakars atrocities on   Hindus for years before  the Police Action,  he readily  gave his sympathetic ears to the reports and  representation of the  Muslim nobles ( Jung, Nawab Zung, Yar Zung)  that    innocent Muslims  were massacred by the Indian army and  some Hindu militant organizations. At the insistence of Maulana Abul Kalam Azad, Nehru  appointed a committee headed by Pt. Sundarlal, a known communist fellow -traveler and at that time, Chairman of the  All India  Peace  Council. That committee  came to   Hyderabad   state , visited a few places, listened to the  tales of   Muslims  and gave  a report that over 40,000 innocent Muslims   men and women had been butchered by the Indian army and Hindus in revenge attacks.  This report  was not made public . It is  believed that Sardar Patel, the Home Minister who was in -charge of the  Police Action had simply filed it .


7.2  From my talks and discussions with some top communist friends  and  non-communist historians  I learnt it appears  that  in the Telangana region, since the communist   party was strong and had  a guerilla army, there were no  revenge actions by Hindus  on Muslims .  In the  Marathwada  part of the Hyderabad  state   where there were hardly any communists, it appears there were some revenge    acts   and just as  Hindus suffered under Razakars’ acts, some Muslim collaborators with the  Razakars in the Marathwada area could have been  the  victims of revenge.  But the victims were only a few hundred and not thousands.  In all these  decades since the Police Action, the so called  Pt. Sundarlal Report has not been discussed in any public forum  nor does   any person of consequence, talk about it.


8. Resurgence of Razakarism & Pakistaniat


8.1 While  there is the Universal  Declaration of Human Rights  adopted by the United  Nations the 57  Muslim counties in the  Organization of Islamic  Co-operation (OIC) have adopted  an alternative  namely,  the Islamic Declaration of Human Rights  distancing  Muslims from the rest of the humanity. Here in India Muslims cherish  the idea that they were rulers of India for hundreds of  years and that they are a ruling martial race. In the days of the movement for the division of India and creation of Pakistan,  there was a  popular slogan ,  ladeke lenge  Pakistan; haske lenge Hindustan” .  Many hold the view that Kashmir and Hyderabad the Nizam’s territory as Osmanistan  and even India,  are unfinished issues of transfer of power by Britain to Indians in Aug 1947.


8.2  Kasim Razvi asserted that Muslims are born fighters and Hindus are cowards, banias (Gandhiji said  that  “Muslims are bullies and Hindus are  cowards) . Sri Akbaruddin Oweisi MLA and Leader of the  Opposition in the Telangana Legislative  Assembly said  two years ago that if the Police kept  off for 15 mnts , not a single Hindu  would be left alive. Several strident  Muslim parties have emerged and are  active in different parts of India. To mention a few these are :   Indian Union Muslim League (IUML) in Kerala, AIMIM  Centered in Hyderabad  and now radiating  allover India; All India  United Democratic Front (AIUDF) in Assam, Popular Front of India (PFI), the above ground avatar of the banned Students  Islamic Movement of India (SIMI) and so on. The Hyderabad Head quartered  AIMIM is successor of Majlis Ittehadul Muslameen with the spirit of the  Razakars . Its leader Asad-ud-din Oweisi, MP is the third generation leader of the   MIM now transformed into AIMIM.   His father Sultan Sallah-ud-din Oweisi and grandfather  Abdul Wahid Oweisi were the dynastic  leaders  of the  AIMIM. The old city part of Hyderabad is the  unbreached stronghold of the  MIM and the  fief of the  Owesis who have been winning the   Lok Sabha seat from here  since 1980 and since 1958 almost all the State Assembly seats.  Oweisi’s speeches are  provocative, and challenging ; not a day passes without  tweets from him all against the BJP’s legislations and policies.  AIUDF’s Badruddin Azmal had said ,  “no law can compel Muslims to have only two children”. As the Indian Express of 25 Jan 2020 reported, Faizul  Hasan former Students Union President of Aligarh Muslim University said, “Muslims can destroy anything if they wish to do (Jan 22, 2020 on AMU campus)…we never tried to break up India, otherwise we are from that  community that  if we resolve to destroy we have enough anger to not leave anything. 


8.3  Support to divisionism


       Communists have been since 1940s   congenital supporters of Muslims’ wishes like

         creation of Pakistan

        Congress and communists  divided districts to create Muslim –majority districts

         (Malappuram in Kerala, Mewat in Haryana;  Muslim (not SC or ST) First districts (more

         than 90) of  Sonia Congress led UPA, for special development

        Kasim Razvi was an AMU –graduate ( in law) .AMU continues to be  the  “arsenal”

          (Jinnah’s term) of Razakarists all over India.

        Just as the Nizam funded the  Ittehad/ Razakars,non-BJP governments fund Islamist

          interests (Haj Houses &  HajSubsidies, Urdu Ghars, Shadi Khanas; pay Imams, &

          muezzins, fund Madrasaas…)

        Communal riots are not British inventions  - they were before the British, during the

          British and  even after they left.

        Razakarists have no words about  ethnic cleansing of Hindus from Kashmir but want

         Rohingyas  and Pakistan / Bangla Muslims in India

        Just as the  Ittehad pressed converted Harijans into  Razakar gangs,  Muslim parties in

          India are  patronizing, fraternising and collaborating with SC converts to Christianity,

          against Hindus. Their refrain is: “SCs, STs, BCs & minorities – unite against Hindutva  

          BJP. They have (unsolicited even) support from “left, progressive, democratic, secular,

          liberal, “eminent” historians, intellectuals, Naxalite and  Pw Grounds.


8.4 Holding  the Citizenship Amendment Act (CAA) as discriminative against and inimical to Muslims, the AIMIM’s leader Asad-ud-din Oweisi  is  moving  all over  India, rallying Muslims to the  war cry :   Muslims are  discriminated  ; Muslims are insecure ; Muslims are persecuted  ; evil  designs are there to deprive them of citizenship through National Population  Register (NPR), National Citizenship Register (NCR) and  even  Census . One of their  collaborators  writer Arundhati  Roy  advised  Muslims and  secularists  to declare in every enumeration  of the Government of India, the residence   of the person  approached the Prime Minister’s residence address. The agitation of  large sections of Muslims  including  students,  especially in AMU in Aligarh , Jamial Millia in Delhi, Jhadavpur in Calcutta , MANUU  and HCU and IFLU in Hyderabad  reminds us of India’s Muslims  khilafat movement concerning   the Sultan of Turkey  joined in by  the  secular National Congress  in the hope of getting India’s Muslims take part  in India’s struggle for freedom.  The support of the non-BJP parties to the  AIMIM’s anti-CAA movement is in expectation of   Muslims voting for them . Just as  the khilafat movement radicalized India’s Muslims and ultimately led to the  partition of India and  creation of  Islamist states Pakistan & Bangladesh ,  the AIMIM movement will lead to further Balkanisation of India


8.5 Lastly, that Razakarism is   very much alive gets  proved  again and again .For eg:    in a small town, Bhainsa  in the Nizamabad  district of   Telangana,  a Razakarist riot was recently staged in January 2020.  Just as in the  past (1927-47), the Razakarised  young person in Bhainsa staged  acts of vandalism  -   looting Hindus homes and  burning  them . In the  recently (Jan 2020) held   municipal elections,  the  division of  Hindu votes   between the regional party,   the   BJP   and Congress gave the  municipality to the   MIM.  Where AIMIM candidates  do not  contest, Muslims vote for the regional party that has the best chance to defeat  the  BJP.


8.6 We can aptly conclude  the  talk by quoting the great statesman of India, Dr B.R. Ambedkar on Pakistan, St. Augustine on tolerance, Sir Winston Churchill on the  imperative to fight evil in time an d George Santayana on the need to  learn from the past.


 “I do not  think the  demand  for Pakistan is  the  result of mere  political distemper, which will pass away with the  efflux of time.  As I read the  situation, it seems to me that it is a characteristic in the  biological sense of the  term which  the  Muslim body politic has developed in the   same  manner as an  organism develops a characteristic. Whether it will survive or not, in the  process of natural  selection, must  depend upon the  forces that may become  operative in the  struggle for  existence  between Hindus and Musalmans .

                                - Dr B.R. Ambedkar  in  the book, Pakistan  or India Divide


“I am in the right, you are in the wrong.  When you are stronger, you ought to tolerate me for it is your duty to tolerate the truth.

But when I am stronger, I shall persecute you, for it is my duty to persecute errors”.

                                                - St. Augustine, one  of the gentlest of Christian divines



Those who don’t learn from the mistakes of the past are condemned to repeat them.                                                                            -George Santayana




The following books were immense sources of information for preparation of this paper.


1.      The End of An Era (Hyderabad Memoirs) by K M Mushi – Publisher Bharatiya Vidya Bhavan; First Edition 1957,  second edition: 1990

2.      Hyderabad : 1948   -  An Avoidable Invasion  by Syed Ali Hasmi;  1st Edition  : 2017; Pharos Media Publishing Pvt Ltd;  D84 , Abdul Fazl Enclave-1, Jamia Nagar, New Delhi-100025

3.      The Tragedy of Hyderabad by Mir Laik Ali ; Published in Sept 2011 by  Deccan Archaeological and Cultural Institute , Hyderabad; Editor: K. Jitendra Babu

4.      The Moplah Rebellion 1921  by C. Gopalan Nair ; 1st Edition : 1923; latest Edition: 2020; Published by Voice of India l 2/18 Amouri Road, New Delhi- 110002




Kasim Razvi in Sardar Patel’s Lair


 In November 1947, Kasim Razvi met with Sardar Patel in Delhi. The meeting was contrived by one Sri Joshi, a Gujarati businessman of  Jalna, and a minister in Nizam’s cabinet.  Here is what transpired.


“Well asked the Sardar, ‘what do you want?’

Razvi had the look of a fanatic, his rolling eyes emitting  fire as if he were  possessed. He glared angrily for a moment. Joshi was nervous, but Sardar’s eyes were  unflinching.

Razvi broke the  silence by saying, “I want a change   of heart from you”.


When he so wished, Sardar could make  silence very uncomfortable. At length he remarked, ‘A change of heart is only necessary for one  whose heart is full of  poison.’


‘Why don’t you let Hyderabad remain independent?’ asked Razvi.


‘I have gone beyond all possible  limits. I have conceded to Hyderabad what I did not  concede to any other State,’ returned Sardar.


‘But I want you to  understand the difficulties  of Hyderabad, ‘ pursued Razvi.

‘I don’t see any difficulty, unless you have come to  some understanding with  Pakistan , was Sardar’s reply.


‘If you do not see our  difficulties, we will not yield,’ cried Razvi working himself up to a state of excitement.  We shall fight and die to te  last man for  Hyderabad.


‘How can I stop you from committing suicide if you want to? Sardar blandly replied.

‘You do not know the  Muslims of Hyderabad; repeated Razvi. ‘We shall sacrifice everything for our  independence.’


‘If it comes to sacrifice, India  has shown what it can do, but Hyderabad has yet to show  what it can’, came the cool reply.


Razvi now began a hysterical tirade on the  shedding of  blood for the  Deen and  the  Millat.

Sardar listened in stolid silence to what Razvi had to say and, when he paused for breath, said, I would  advise you to  see the  sun before it is  too late. Do not  plunge into  darkness while the  light is still visible...............